首页 >> 民族学 >> 学术文摘
资源转移与人类生命史的进化
2016年12月23日 15:47 来源:ANNUAL REVIEW OF ANTHROPOLOGY, VOL 44 丛书 作者: 字号

内容摘要:

关键词:

作者简介:

  Resource Transfers and Human Life-History Evolution

  资源转移与人类生命史的进化

  Abstract:  Formal models of life-history evolution have been used to illuminate both the peculiarities of the human life cycle and its commonalities with those of other taxa. Understanding reproductive decisions in both the contemporary market-based economies of wealthy nation-states and rapidly changing populations largely of the Global South presents particular challenges to evolutionary life-history theory for several reasons. These include (a) the rapidity with which reproductive patterns change, (b) the magnitude of fertility reduction from previous equilibria, and (c) the frequent absence or even reversal of expected wealth-fertility gradients. These empirical challenges have been met to an increasing extent by specifically incorporating durable wealth and resource transfers into more traditional life-history models. Such relatively new models build on classical life-history theory to generate novel predictions. Among these are quite robust predictions that the existence of heritable wealth will decrease optimal fertility and that, once the system of resource transfers is established, fertility and resource transfers will coevolve.

  摘要:生命史进化模型已被用来解释人类生命周期的特性,以及与其他种群的共性特点。在当代富裕的市场经济国家和人口迅速变化的全球大部分南方国家里理解人口生育的决定对生命史进化提出了特别的挑战,它是基于这几个原因。包括(A)生育模式的变化的快速性,和(b)从以前的生育平衡到目前生育减少的幅度,和(C)经常缺乏的,甚至逆转的财富生育率梯度期望值。这些实证性的挑战已经达到了越来越尖锐的程度,特别是将持久的财富和资源转换到更传统的生活史模型中。其中相对较新的是模型建立在传统的生命史理论,以产生新的预测。其中有相当准确的预测表明,继承财富的存在会降低最优生育率,一旦建立了资源转移系统,生育和资源转移也将同时变化。

  作者: Jones, James Holland

  编者: Brenneis, D; Strier, KB

  来源:ANNUAL REVIEW OF ANTHROPOLOGY, VOL 44   丛书: Annual Review of Anthropology   卷: 44   页: 513-531   出版年: 2015

  

分享到: 0 转载请注明来源:中国社会科学网 (责编:孙志香)
696 64.jpg
用户昵称:  (您填写的昵称将出现在评论列表中)  匿名
 验证码 
所有评论仅代表网友意见
最新发表的评论0条,总共0 查看全部评论

回到频道首页
wxgg3.jpg
内文页广告3(手机版).jpg
中国社会科学院概况|中国社会科学杂志社简介|关于我们|法律顾问|广告服务|网站声明|联系我们